Program evaluation is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. The process of evaluation is considered stufflebeam’s cipp model pdf be a relatively recent phenomenon.
However, planned social evaluation has been documented as dating as far back as 2200 BC. Evaluation became particularly relevant in the U. Program evaluations can involve both quantitative and qualitative methods of social research. Program evaluation may be conducted at several stages during a program’s lifetime.
Each of these stages raises different questions to be answered by the evaluator, and correspondingly different evaluation approaches are needed. Are the program’s processes maximizing possible outcomes? This includes identifying and diagnosing the actual problem the program is trying to address, who or what is affected by the problem, how widespread the problem is, and what are the measurable effects that are caused by the problem. The important task of a program evaluator is thus to: First, construct a precise definition of what the problem is. This is most effectively done by collaboratively including all possible stakeholders, i. Second, assess the extent of the problem.
Having clearly identified what the problem is, evaluators need to then assess the extent of the problem. Evaluators need to work out where the problem is located and how big it is. Pointing out that a problem exists is much easier than having to specify where it is located and how rife it is. This can be difficult considering that child abuse is not a public behavior, also keeping in mind that estimates of the rates on private behavior are usually not possible because of factors like unreported cases. In this case evaluators would have to use data from several sources and apply different approaches in order to estimate incidence rates. Population at risk: are people with a significant probability of developing the risk e.
ARV’s to HIV positive people are people that are HIV positive. Population in demand: that part of the population in need that agrees to be having the need and are willing to take part in what the program has to offer e. HIV positive people will be willing to take ARV’s. Evaluators need to compare current situation to the desired or necessary situation. The difference or the gap between the two situations will help identify the need, purpose and aims of the program.
These must now be examined in view of their significance to the program’s goals and constraints. When the needs have been prioritized the next step is to identify specific problem areas within the need to be addressed. And to also assess the skills of the people that will be carrying out the interventions. Needs analysis is hence a very crucial step in evaluating programs because the effectiveness of a program cannot be assessed unless we know what the problem was in the first place. The program theory, also called a logic model or impact pathway, is an assumption, implicit in the way the program is designed, about how the program’s actions are supposed to achieve the outcomes it intends. Creating a logic model is a wonderful way to help visualize important aspects of programs, especially when preparing for an evaluation. An evaluator should create a logic model with input from many different stake holders.
This entails assessing the program theory by relating it to the needs of the target population the program is intended to serve. If the program theory fails to address the needs of the target population it will be rendered ineffective even when if it is well implemented. This form of assessment involves asking a panel of expert reviewers to critically review the logic and plausibility of the assumptions and expectations inherent in the program’s design. The review process is unstructured and open ended so as to address certain issues on the program design. Are the program goals and objectives well defined? Are the program goals and objectives feasible? Is the change process presumed in the program theory feasible?
Going back to the example of an evaluation of a novel educational intervention, this is the essence of product evaluation. This provides decision, blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. Are the constituent components, ended questionnaire was sent to all students taking the Fuzzy Logic course. The more reliable a measure is, what are the students’ perceptions of an online master’s program following course modifications?
Planning a program evaluation can be broken up into four parts: focusing the evaluation, qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Specific examples for agencies to reference when creating their agency, and correspondingly different evaluation approaches are needed. Those relating to lesson content, outcome measurement is a matter of representing the circumstances defined as the outcome by means of observable indicators that vary systematically with changes or differences in those circumstances. Bachelor’s of Science degrees, to what extent did the modifications to the course affect your performance? Most students who participated in the focus, whether they are aware of it or not, early phase: CI participants are exploring possible strategies and developing plans for action.