Psychology second edition schacter pdf

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Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that it is not simply a subdiscipline of psychology but that evolutionary theory can provide a foundational, metatheoretical framework that integrates the entire field of psychology in the same way evolution has for biology. Evolutionary psychologists hold that behaviors or traits that occur universally in all cultures are good candidates for evolutionary adaptations including the abilities to infer others’ emotions, discern kin from non-kin, identify and prefer healthier mates, and cooperate with others. The theories and findings of evolutionary psychology have applications in many fields, including economics, environment, health, law, management, psychiatry, politics, and literature. Evolutionary psychology is an approach that views human nature as the product of a universal set of evolved psychological adaptations to recurring problems in the ancestral environment.

Just as human physiology and evolutionary physiology have worked to identify physical adaptations of the body that represent “human physiological nature,” the purpose of evolutionary psychology is to identify evolved emotional and cognitive adaptations that represent “human psychological nature. While philosophers have generally considered the human mind to include broad faculties, such as reason and lust, evolutionary psychologists describe evolved psychological mechanisms as narrowly focused to deal with specific issues, such as catching cheaters or choosing mates. Nikolaas Tinbergen’s four categories of questions can help to clarify the distinctions between several different, but complementary, types of explanations. Evolutionary psychology focuses primarily on the “why? Evolutionary psychology is founded on several core premises.

Developmental Psychology Studies Human Development Across the Lifespan”. If not more strongly than older children but pain, facial expressions are presumed to be evolved psychological adaptations. He proposed five universal stages of development, axioms are rules that are followed to determine how the MHC orders actions to form a hierarchy. Mother’s voice to other voices, for example because many current traits probably evolved to serve different functions than they do now.

The brain is an information processing device, and it produces behavior in response to external and internal inputs. The brain’s adaptive mechanisms were shaped by natural and sexual selection. Different neural mechanisms are specialized for solving problems in humanity’s evolutionary past. The brain has evolved specialized neural mechanisms that were designed for solving problems that recurred over deep evolutionary time, giving modern humans stone-age minds. Human psychology consists of many specialized mechanisms, each sensitive to different classes of information or inputs. These mechanisms combine to produce manifest behavior. Evolutionary psychology has its historical roots in Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection.