Introduction to mass communication media literacy and culture pdf

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The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets. Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media as film, radio, recorded music, or television. The organizations that control these technologies, such as movie studios, publishing companies, and radio and television stations, are also known as the mass media. In the late 20th century, mass media could be classified into eight mass media industries: books, the Internet, magazines, movies, newspapers, radio, recordings, and television. The explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries made prominent the question: what forms of media should be classified as “mass media”?

Each mass medium has its own content types, creative artists, technicians, and business models. For example, the Internet includes blogs, podcasts, web sites, and various other technologies built atop the general distribution network. While a telephone is a two-way communication device, mass media communicates to a large group. In addition, the telephone has transformed into a cell phone which is equipped with Internet access. Video games may also be evolving into a mass medium. Users sometimes share the experience with one another by playing online. The term “mass media” is sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for “mainstream media”.

Mainstream media are distinguished from alternative media by their content and point of view. In common usage, the term “mass” denotes not that a given number of individuals receives the products, but rather that the products are available in principle to a plurality of recipients. Mass media are distinguished from local media by the notion that whilst mass media aims to reach a very large market, such as the entire population of a country, local media broadcasts to a much smaller population and area, and generally focuses on regional news rather than global events. A family listening to a crystal radio in the 1920s.

The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. With all technological endeavours a number of technical terms and slang have developed. Please see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used. Radio and television programs are distributed over frequency bands that in the United States are highly regulated.

Such regulation includes determination of the width of the bands, range, licensing, types of receivers and transmitters used, and acceptable content. Cable television programs are often broadcast simultaneously with radio and television programs, but have a more limited audience. When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. In 2004, a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined to produce podcasting. The term ‘film’ encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general.

Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques or special effects. Films comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown in rapid succession, an illusion of motion is created. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the film message. A video game is a computer-controlled game in which a video display, such as a monitor or television, is the primary feedback device. In common usage, an “arcade game” refers to a game designed to be played in an establishment in which patrons pay to play on a per-use basis.

A “computer game” or “PC game” refers to a game that is played on a personal computer. Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation or amplification of sound, often as music. An album is a collection of related audio recordings, released together to the public, usually commercially. The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. Modern music videos were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings.

Music videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation, live action films, documentaries, and non-narrative, abstract film. Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is the system of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc. Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which most individuals could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. Anyone with a web site has the potential to address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive. Cross-media” means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as “convergence”.